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By Renée LaTulippe

Art by Cécile Metzger

tur tles spi ral in be tween. +/-/-/-/

A sea horse pair glides on the scene,-/-/-/-/

Bows deep and low, then sou bre saut! -/-/-/-/

An el e gant mar ine rou tine. -/-/-/-/

This is a story of how the tide is like ballet, with each character appearing then disappearing. 

We feel like we are watching theater with a theme, story and atmosphere.

But first a little introduction. Please allow me to digress.

Ballet is made up of gestures, movements, ebb and flow, in many ways like a tide.

The French phrasing has remained universal in ballet. 

Ballet dancers across the world learn and can communicate with this universal ballet terminology.


  • How about using foreign words to infuse your poem with something rich and a taste of the unexplored?
  • Take your meter and rhythm away from the predictable.
  • You will of course need access to a good foreign language dictionary.



By Kristyn Crow

Art by

Annie Won

If you’re restless and can’t sleep, /-/-/-/

come explore the jungle deep, /-/-/-/

where the beasts and critters creep. /-/-/-/

All aboard the moonlight train. /-/-/-/

There's a toucan at the gate- /-/-/-/

Takes your ticket, checks the date. /-/-/-/

March aboard! Wild things await. /-/-/-/

All aboard the moonlight train. /-/-/-/


Do all picture books have to have a story structure? No. In fact, picture books work best when written in a poem structure. You are not forced into making a story serve the rhyme. Yet, the above poem is beautiful, is it not?

  • Are you not transported into a dream like world?
  • Did you notice the poem is just exploring the sights and senses aboard a moonlight train?
  • Did you notice the refrain at the end of each stanza?
  • Poetry helps develop an awareness of language, phonic patterns, and rhythms.
  • Poetry can transport children into delightful worlds of imagination and silliness.
  • Children acquire a palate for beauty of the written word.

Example: The use of the anapest


by  Beth Ferry 

Art by

Brigette Barrager

When bedtime is near, +-/--/

and teeth are all brushed. -/--/

And the house is asleep, --/--/

and noises are hushed, +-/--/

you might hear a tune, -/--/

you might be in luck. -/--/

You might get a visit. -/--/-

From the NICE DREAM TRUCK. --/ / /

The truck is a wonder. -/--/-

It floats and it flies, -/--/

steered by a girl, /--/

with stars in her eyes. -/--/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

An anapest consists of two unstressed syllables followed by on stressed syllable. An anapest can be a single word, two or three words. This stress pattern gives anapestic verse a light and nimble rhythm that evokes the galloping of a horse or the rolling of ocean waves.

Anapest can become very sing-songy and the reader easily bored and reading tedious. There is a fix to this problem. Enter the truncated/headless meter. What is a truncated meter? What is headless meter?

  • Headless anapest is a first unstressed syllable that is missing or omitted.

  • Truncated meter is a line of poetry that is missing a syllable in the middle or at the end of a line. 
  • Did you notice the headless meters in lines 1, 2. And lines 5 – 11?

Do you have a manuscript in anapest meter? Why not break it up? Insert a headless/truncated meter here and there and see what happens!

See if you can get your hands on this book. It is a delight!


Example: Lyrical Prose


by Tony Johnston art by Amy June Bates

A child/ is born/ one win/ter day -/-/-/-/

His moth/er calls/ him lamb. -/-/-/

She hums/ a tune/ that has/ no words -/-/-/-/

and holds/ her bab/y’s hands. -/-/-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

  • Did you notice that the first stanza has near rhymes?
  • Did you notice it holds its rhythm all the way through?

This concept book has more near rhymes than true rhymes. How can a rhyme crime such as this be published! However this is lyrical prose, that just happens to have a rhythm of iamb and a rhyme or two spattered in between here and there. Something that confuses the poet yet, engages the reader.

A poignant story that in my opinion, is well done!

Example: Cadence


And Other How To Poems

Selected by Paul B. Janeczko

Art by

Richard Jones


By Charles Ghigna

Let's build a poem -/-/-

made of rhyme /-/

with words like ladders -/-/-

with word that climb, -/-/

with words that like -/-/

to take their time. -/-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Cadence can be described as: a rhythmic flow of a sequence of sounds or words.

In poetry, it is the where you naturally want to pause, that sets the pace of a literary piece.

  • Did you notice how the hard beats of this poem appear to match the pounding of a hammer?
  • Did you notice the structure of this poem appears to match that of climbing a ladder?

Cadence connects the sounds and senses to each other. It helps you not only read the words but experience the words. Cadence can make you feel. It has the power to get under your skin, linger and sometimes unsettle you. 

Example: Rhyme and non-fiction


By Jennifer Ward

Illustrated by Alexander Vidal

Just you/ and me. -/-/

Just me/ and you. -/-/

We’re per/fect pairs! -/-/

Here’s what/ we do. . . -/-/

     Some animals and plants form lifelong partnerships

with other animals and plants, a relationship known

as symbiosis. Then they cooperate and help each other

in the most unlikely ways.

Why does this work and how can it help you?

This book is jam packed with important information. Expository narration of facts can bog us down at times. Want to make it stand out? Want to make it sing? Enter mix and match rhyme.

  • Did you notice the first stanza is of metered rhyme? It introduces the matter to be discussed.
  • The next paragraph is of non-rhyme and expounds and elaborates upon the topic. It can be any length. It is not constrained by meter. It simply says what you want it to say. And in the way you want to say it. 
  • This book continues with the one stanza of poetry followed by one paragraph of non-rhyming facts.  

Do you have a non-fiction manuscript that isn’t getting noticed? Why not add some shine to it. Like rhyme?

Example: Metrical Variation


By Catherine Amari and Anouk Han

Art by Erni Lenox

White cat Black cat /-/-

Blue cat Brown cat /-/-

High cat Low cat /-/-

Always upside-down cat. /-/-/-

Fluffed cat Bare cat /-/-

Round cat Square cat /-/-

Long cat short cat /-/-

Rarely-ever-there cat. /-/-/-

Why does this work and how can it help you?

You might think this is a rhyming book in its simplest form. Until you look further.

  • Did you notice the variation in the rhyming pattern? This keeps the poem from becoming too sing-songy, thereby helping the reader to stay interested.
  • Did you notice that there are no end rhymes with each line ending with cat, cat, cat. This is another technique useful for keeping our interest. When it come to meter it is important to rhyme the stressed beats. We are not put into a corner and forced to use only end rhyme. 
  • The only hard and fast rule is for a rhyme to land on a stressed beat. The author here has chosen to rhyme the second to last beat.

Why not give it a go yourself? Write a poem using this technique of rhyming a stressed beat anywhere in the line. See if it does not surprise you and refresh you.

Pick a stanza pattern you want. Make sure it is consistent. And have fun!

Example: Hypercatalectic/Catalectis/Ellipsis


By Kathy Wolff

Illustrated by Margaux Meganck

All we need --/

Is what’s found/ in the breeze, --/--/

In the still/ness of noth/ing, --/--/+

In the rust/le of trees, --/--/

When we take/ a deep breath, --/--/

What’s not seen/ – but is there. . . --/--/

All we need. . . is air. --/-+/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Meter in poetry is an internal beat or rhythm. It is a music of accented and unaccented syllables arranged into feet. Many times, people confuse meter with syllables. However, in rhyming poetry, we only count hard beats. When it comes to soft beats, we are given a small reprieve.

  • Catalectic is where one or two soft beats are missing.
  • Hypercatalectic is where one or two soft beats are added.
  • Can you find the added or subtracted soft beats in this stanza?

This is allowable and advantageous. It prevents the poem from becoming sing-songy. The only danger is in the overuse of the soft beat. You are permitted about two per stanza. After that the reader becomes confused.

  • Ellipsis is a literary device used to omit some parts of a sentence or event, which gives the reader a chance to fill the gaps while reading. It is usually written between the sentences as a series of three dots, like this: “…”

Did you notice that in this story, the ellipsis is like a long breath, a pause, a heartbeat.

It is also used as a page turn. Allowing the child to try and guess what the answer would be. The child is engaged, and learning becomes an enjoyable experience. 

The story poem will take your breath away. 

Example: Rhythm in Lyrical Prose


THE DEEP BLUE a poetry collection

By Charlotte Guillian

Art by Lou Baker Smith 


Water laps and creeps up the beach under

a moonlit Sky. Soon the shore has vanished

underwater, as waves roll steadily on to the land.

By Daybreak, the sea has slipped away again,

leaving shiny pebbles and gleaming mud flats

to dry in the morning sun. In and out, in and

out -the tides are constantly moving.  

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Rhythm in writing acts as a beat does in music. The use of rhythm arises from the need to express some words more strongly than others. They might be stressed for a longer period. This produces a pattern or sequence.

Rhythm captivates and gives prose a musical effect. It is just as effective as metered poetry. 

  • Do you not feel the water’s pull as you read each line?
  • Are your senses not immersed and calmed by the pull of the tide?  

Do you want to capture an essence of a feeling but are stuck by the limits of meter?

Clear away the clutter of extemporaneous words. Think in pictures instead of words. Think in terms of senses. By doing this you will find your rhythm. 

Example: Onomatopoeia and Internal Rhyme.


By Kathleen Doherty

Art by Kristyna Litton


One night, under the light of the silvery moon,

all of Bear’s friends were deep asleep.

The Bear- wasn't sleepy he wanted to play.

So he wandered off to find some fun in people town.




Bare nosed around until he found...

It looked friendly.

Bear plopped down on its lap.




The Thingity-jig was a springy thing.

A bouncy thing.

A sit-on-it, hop-on-it,

jump-on-it thing.

Bear hurried home to tell his friends.


Why does this work and how can it help you?

Onomatopoeia creates a sound that mimics the effect. It makes the description more expressive and interesting.

For instance, we could say she fell asleep. Or we could simply write: “Zzzzzz.“

This makes the descriptions livelier and more interesting, appealing directly to the senses of the reader. Onomatopoeia helps the reader enter the world created. 

  • Internal rhyme is rhyme that occurs in the middle of lines of poetry, instead of at the ends of lines. A single line of poetry can contain internal rhyme (with multiple words in the same line rhyming), or the rhyming words can occur across multiple lines.

  • Internal rhymes can appear in any type of poetry or prose. It gives you freedom to tell your story. It makes your manuscript musical. A manuscript that is fun to read will always stand out and rise above.

Do you have a good story but it needs something? Why not give onomatopoeia and internal rhyme a try. See if it doesn't take it up a notch. 

Example: Diction



 by Marshall Silverman

illustrated by Ida Osterman  

Well, Mon/day was/ a blu/rry fuzz; -/-/-/-/

It left/ me in/ a fog.-/-/-/

+Sore/ and sad,/ I asked/ my dad, +/-/-/-/

Could I/ please have/ a dog? -/-/-/

A dog/gy pup/ would cheer/ me up, -/-/-/-/

Just like/ an an/ti dote. -/-/-/

I had/ a fish./ His name/ was splish. -/-/-/-/

And all/ he did/ was float. -/-/-/ 

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Diction, or choice of words, can elevate your story from average to excellent. It will mean the difference between getting passed over to noticed.

Writers choose words to create a mood, tone, atmosphere.

And when used with humor it makes you sit up and pay attention.  

  • Did you notice the internal rhymes?
  • Did you notice the assonance?
  • Did you notice the alliteration? 

These pepper the story throughout.

Why not take some time and look for the unusual word choice? With picture books we are limited in our word count. Why use up valuable real estate with average words. Use strong language choices to make strong images.  

Example: Cumulative Story Structure


by Michelle Lord art by art by Julia Blattman

This is the mess that we made.

These are the fish that swim in the mess that we made.

This is the seal that eats the fish that swim in the mess that we made.

This is the net that catches the seal, that eats the fish that swim in the mess that we made.

This is the boat of welded steel, that dumps the net, that catches the seal, that eats the fish that swim in the mess that we made.

Why does this work and how can it help you?

A Cumulative Story is a story that builds on a pattern. It starts with one person, place, thing, or event. Each time a new person,

place, thing, or event is shown, all the previous ones are repeated.

Each event reinforces the initiating problem of the story and a new attempt at solving it. It helps children to think of different solutions.

  • Did you notice the problem, initiating event, character intentions and desires, and moral are there?
  • This is fun because children soon pick up on the refrain and increase their own vocabulary.
  • Did you notice how each event adds momentum? Thereby increasing tension?

Example: Caesura


by Chris Tougas  art Jose'e Bisaillon

​​I had/ a po/em in/ my pock/et, -/-/-/-/-

+but/ my pock/et got/ a rip. +/-/-/-/

Rhymes tumbl/ed down/ my leg, -/-/-/

and trickl/ed from/ my hip. -/-/-/

+Slip/ping, slid/ing, dip/ping, div/ing, +/-/-/-/-

+rhyt/hms hit/ the ground. + Then... +/-/-/+ /

A whirl/ing, twirl/ing, swirl/ng wind -/-/-/-/

Blew all/ my rhymes/ a round. -/-/-/ 

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Everyone speaks, and everyone breathes while speaking. Poetry also uses pauses in its lines.

One such pause is known as “caesura,” a rhythmical pause in a poetic line. Though it can occur in the middle of a line, or sometimes at the beginning and the end. At times, it occurs with punctuation; at other times it does not.  

  • Did you notice the caesura in the second line of the second stanza?
  • Did you notice how this caused you to pause?
  • Did you notice the expectation this created? 

It can create drama, enhance momentum and complexity. Make your poem stand out by means of a caesura. 

Example: Repetition​


by Meg Fleming

Illustrations by Diana Sudyka  

​​Some times/ driz zle. /-/-

Drip drip/ drain. / / /+

Some times/ pic nic. /-/-

Some times/ rain. /-/+

Some times/ drop ping. /-/-

Stead y,/ chill. /-/+

Some times/ frost ing /-/-

E very/ Hill. /-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

One of the fundamentals of poetry is the recurrence of sounds, syllables, words, phrases, lines, and stanzas. Repetition can be an intoxicating feature of poetry. It creates expectations, it can arouse emotions, memories, incite enchantment and inspire bliss.

Repetition in poetry is a technique of repeating different words or phrases. Repetition creates structure within a poem. It helps readers focus on a specific thought or emotion.

Repetition can occur at any point in the poem.

  • Did you notice that this is a list poem?
  • Did you notice how these repetitions are of contrasts and similarities.
  • Did you notice how these repetitions can tweak our view?

If you want to write a poem with repetition, first think about the point you want to get across. What is the part you want your readers to focus on? Then plan on how you can incorporate a repeated word, phrase, line, or stanza into your poem.

Example: Lyrical Prose


by Johnathan Stutzman art Joseph Kuefler

​​The night/ is for dark/ness. -/--/-

And bright gold/en beams. --/-/

For dis cov/er ing eyes --/--/

are not/ what they seem. -/--/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

This book is a concept book. With the added hook of being lyrical poetry. Concept books can open a window, help children to see beyond the ordinary. It allows for a fresh look at a familiar view.  

  • Did you notice that this is written in metered form, but there are no end rhymes?
  • Did you notice that this concept poem is written like an essay?
  • The first sentence states the topic.
  • The following sentences describe this topic.
  • It allows for images in the mind and use of the senses.  

Because the child soon begins to recognize a pattern, a concept book also helps a child to develop memory. When brains are enjoyably engaged, learning becomes a pleasure. 

See if you can take one of your worn out and rejected manuscripts and give it a different dimension. Turn it into a concept story. 

Example: Breaking the fourth wall by means of the aside.


by Alex Beard

There once/ was a king -/--/

who liked/ to tell lies.-/--/

He said/ it was day -/--/

Beneath/ the skies. -/-/

“Good Morning."

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Image a stage, where the actor stops and speaks directly to the audience. The invisible wall that separates the audience from the actor is the fourth wall.

An aside is but one way to break the fourth wall. But why would we want to do that in our writing? What are the benefits?

In story picture books with a character arc, you must have emotional resonance. This is the most difficult part of writing a picture book. It is made more challenging when trying to do so in rhyme.

The aside achieves this by speaking to the reader. The aside can communicate important information and makes the reader a confidante.

  • Did you notice that the aside does not need to rhyme?

  • Did you notice that The Lying King is expressing his emotions to the reader?
  • Did you notice how this technique pulls the reader into the experience?

Example: Rhyming Story Books


By  Helen Docherty art by Thomas Docherty

The day/ Nell joined/ the pi/rate crew -/-/-/-/

was full/ of hope;/ a dream/ come true! -/-/-/-/

For great/ ad ven/tures filled/ her head -/-/-/-/

from ev/er y tale/ she’d e/ver read. -/--/-/-/

Nell won/dered what/ she ought/ to pack. -/-/-/-/

Of course!/ Her pi/rate’s al/ma nac. -/-/-/-/

It taught/ her all/ she’d need/ to know -/-/-/-/

from how/ to steer/ to how/ to row; -/-/-/-/

Which way/ was east/ and which/ was west... -/-/-/-/

But Capt/ain Gnash/ was not/ im pressed. -/-/-/-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Often picture book writers are told NOT to rhyme. Agreed, there are challenges to overcome. Challenges like: Is the story serving the rhyme, or is the rhyme serving the story. Are we losing the plot, tension and character arc in the process?

Do not lose heart for these challenges can be overcome.

Here are the "W" questions every story needs to ask.

  • Who is the main character?
  • Where is the story taking place?
  • What does the main character want?
  • Why does the main character want this?

Let’s see how these questions are answered with this story.

  • Who-Nell
  • Where- A pirate ship
  • Wants- To be a pirate
  • Why- For great adventure

Nell wants to have great adventures. To achieve her goal, she decides to join a pirate ship. We learn a bit about her character when she brings her almanac. But she is met with one large obstacle in the form of Captain Gnash. All these questions are answered within the first 69 words.

And we want to continue reading, do we not?

So, in the spirit of Nell, I say forge ahead! Don’t let anyone stop you. Write your story in rhyme. Make you character memorable and multi-dimensional. Answer all of the "W" questions in the first few paragraphs.

If someone tells you it is a hard sell to write a certain type of book, maybe it’s because they haven't seen YOUR book yet!

Example: Hypercatalectic/catalectic


By Linda Ashman art by Joey Chou

Waves and / shakes +/-/

And/ hel/los +/-/ 

Eye to /eye +/-/

And nose/ to nose. -/-/

Sooth ing/ words +/-/

An ex/pert guide -/-/

Step/ by step +/-/

And side/ by side. -/-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

When it comes to rhythmical poetry we only count hard beats.

Poets have a variety of tools at their disposal. One of which is rhythm. Poetry is an art form where each word is weighed and measured. It can set a tone, spur emotions, make ideas memorable and create music.

Hypercatalectic is when a soft beat is added. Catalectic is when a soft beat is subtracted. Notice how this is done in the poem above.

I have scanned it as iambic/dimeter. That means the first syllable has a hard beat followed by a soft beat. Each line has two hard beats.

  • Did you notice that the first line in the first stanza is missing a soft beat at the end? That is catalectic.
  • Did you notice that the last line in each stanza has an added soft beat added at the beginning of the line? That is hypercatalectic.
  • Important to note is usually no more than two hypercatalectic/catalectic beats per line. Otherwise the poem loses its musicality.

When we introduce children to the music of reading, it becomes a pleasure. They will go on to read chapter books, novels and textbooks.

Sometimes the picture book or poem in your hands is the first step to a thoughtful, educated and well-read adult.

Example: The Refrain

By Andrea Zimmerman

Art by Jing J Tsong

If I were a tree, -/--/

I know how I’d be. -/--/

I’d stand strong and wide, --/-/

my limbs side to side. --/-/

I’d stand towering, tall, --/--/

high above all, /-/-

my leaves growing big, --/-/

and buds on each twig. -/--/

If I were a tree, -/--/

that’s how I’d be. -/-/

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Refrain is a poetic device that repeats ideas , at regular intervals, in different stanzas. It also contributes to the rhyme of a poem and adds emphasis.

By using a refrain, poets can make their ideas memorable, and draw the attention of the readers toward a certain idea.

A refrain can appear anywhere in the poem.

  • Did you notice that the refrain appears before the stanza?
  • Did you notice the refrain appears after the stanza?

This serves an extremely useful purpose with this poem, toward the end. It is poignant, full of heart and takes your breath away.

Example: Free Verse


By Doe Boyle

Illustrated by Emily Paik

Awaken to the calm-

the peaceful pink of dawn’s night.

Note a kiss of air, a soft breath,

a phantom wisp, faint as shadows,

cool and crisp.

Bend an ear to the breeze-

hear the scuffling, ruffling futter-

leaves go scuttling in the gutter.

See the shifting grasses shudder-

Sharing whispered summer secrets

With the silent, stalking egrets.

Why does this work and how can it help you?

Free verse can be defined as poetry that is free from limitations of regular meter and rhyme. A free verse poem provides artistic expression, in that it closely follows the cadences of human speech.

By using techniques such as metaphor, simile, alliteration, consonance, assonance, the writer of free verse does not just provide information, but also stirs emotion.

  • The peaceful pink of dawn’s night. Can you not see the sun set?
  • Note a kiss of air, a soft breath. Can you not smell the freshness in the forming dew?
  • A phantom wisp, faint as shadows. Can you not feel the breeze on your cheeks?

This picture book focuses on how the wind affects our world. Each stanza represents one of the thirteen categories of the Beaufort Wind Force Scale.

Why not give it a try? Close your eyes, stir you senses and write what you feel. 

Example: Metrical Variation


By Karen Jameson

Art by Wednesday Kirwan

Neigh-a-bye lullaby /-/ /-/

Slowly swaying rock – a – bye /-/-/-/

Nuzzle nose, breathing deep /-/ /-/

Plodding, nodding off to sleep /-/-/-/

Moo-a-bye lullaby /-/ /-/

Droop eyelids flutter – sigh //-/-/

Setting in, hoof to chin /-/ /-/

Milky dreams come floating in /-/-/-/


What is the purpose for metrical variation?

  • Surprise with unexpected turns of phrase.
  • Avoid a sing-song cadence.
  • Emphasize phrases or a refrain.
  • Did you notice the metrical variation by means of the spondee?
  • Did you notice each line is truncated?
  • Did you notice the change of metrical feet for certain stanzas?
  • Did you notice the metonymy? The substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant? For example: Neigh-a-bye lullaby and Moo-a-bye lullaby?

Is this not a fun filled read-a-loud?